The coffee plant

The coffee plant

Coffee is a plant from the Rubiaceae family. About 60 species of plants from the Coffea genus are known. Of the many types of coffee, only a few have been cultivated:

  • Coffea Arabica (Arabica) with about 70% of the world’s production
  • Coffea Canphora (Robusta) representing about 30% of production
  • Coffea Liberica
  • Coffea Dewevrei or Excelsa, which together account for less than 1% of the world’s coffee production

Coffee is shrub or gray and green tree that can grow up to 9 meters high. Its fruit is a red, round cherry-like berry.



Coffee is the seed of the tree fruit that thrives in tropical and subtropical climates at the altitude between 600 and 2000 meters. The temperature that favors the plant’s growth is between 15°C and 25°C, and the plant also requires sufficient precipitation.

The height of the plant is shortened to a height of 2.5 - 3 meters for easier harvesting. During the yield period, the plant has clusters of herbaceous flowers similar to jasmine in form and smell.



These flowers bloom for only 24 - 36 hours, when they develop small green fruits that ripen into yellow, then red and eventually almost black fruits. The maturation process takes place over a period of 6 - 9 months. The fruits ripen at different times, so the berries are harvested by hand.



In addition to coffee types, many other reasons affect the quality of the beans. Plantation location, soil composition, altitude, climatic conditions, soil nutrition, cultivation method, harvesting and bean processing, as well as many other steps, have a major impact on the end product.

The coffee tree yields its first fruit at 4-5 years of age, while it reaches the highest yield at 10-14 years of age. The lifespan of a coffee plant is up to 50 years.